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Causes of damage to some
Zambian wild fruit trees, by E.J. Parker, Zambia Journal of Science
and Technology, Vol.3, no.4, October 1978, Pg. 74-83.
Causes of damage to some indigenous Zambian trees bearing edible fruits or nuts
are recorded, with particular reference to mupundu Parinari curatellifolia and
masuku Uapaca kirkiana. Diseases and pests are often specific within host
genera, although some common types of damage result either from organisms with a
broad host range, or from the variety of organisms within a similar ecological
Abiotic damage occurs from fire, frost, and through mechanical means. Leaf
infecting fungi and wood decay fungi may reduce host vigour. Predominant
problems are insect initiated. For Parinari spp. insect or mite induced galls
are frequent defects, and weevil larvae infest the seed and may induce premature
fruit fall. For Uapaca spp. 10-20% defoliation by phytophagous pests is common.
Both fungi and insects can cause defects and damage to the fruit at all stages
of development, thus reducing the measures for trees in indigenous woodlands;
only in orchards or nurseries can protection be economically envisaged.
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