Epelu-Opio, Nkonde & Sakala


A Study on the incidence, location and types of disorders in the female genital organs in local breeds of cattle maintained under the traditional management in Eastern, Northern and Southern Provinces of Zambia, by J. Epelu-Opio, V.C. Nkonde and B. Sakala, Zambia Journal of Science & Technology, Vol.5, October 1980, Pg. 18-27


Congenital anomalies were not prevalent in the reproductive organs of the cows and heifers examined in Eastern, Northern and southern Provinces. Functional anomalies encountered were cystic ovaries associated with nymphomania. Anoestrus was also one of the common functional anomalies. It was associated with malnutrition and chronic debilitating diseases such as theileriasis, trypanosomiasis and gastro-intestinal parasitism. Acquired anatomical disorders, most probably as a result of infections were prevalent in the uterus. Lacerations or bruises of the external genitalia were common. Inflammatory processes of non-specific aetiology in the vulvo-vaginal tract and nodular vulvitis were predominant. Low level of animal husbandry and management were largely responsible for these phenomena.

Endometritis was the most common uterine disorder. Induration of the uteri characterised by thickening and/or cord-like texture of the uterine walls or horns was often found in cows aged ten or more years. Aged cows (over 10 Years of age) were many and the majority of them were unproductive. The distribution of bulls among the herds examined was extremely irregular and poor. The cow to bull ratio was too high for good breeding in the type of management practised in the traditional sector. This was one of the factors attributable to the low conception and calving rates in the traditional herds.

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